These studies demonstrated an effect of sex chromosomes in the induction of immune responses, but did not address a potential role of sex chromosomes in the CNS response to immune-mediated injury.
Here, we examined this possibility using XX versus XY bone marrow chimeras reconstituted with a common immune system of one sex chromosomal type.
Michelle Hazelmyer, a trangender woman originally from Spokane and Springdale, said finding a notary in rural areas can be a problem, and the fees for doctors or notaries could be a barrier for low-income and homeless youth. “I’m sure the secretary may be overreaching” if he approves the change, said Faust, who in 2016 unsuccessfully challenged a rule by the state Human Rights Commission that allows transgender people to use public restrooms based on gender identity.
The department will compile all the comments on the proposed rule change for Director John Wiesman by mid-December; and the earliest the change could take effect would be late January.
“A person’s sex is immutable.” The state currently has a process allowing an adult to change the sex listed on a Washington birth certificate, which requires either a letter from a doctor saying the person making the request has had “appropriate clinical treatment” or a court order.
In considering a revision of that rule, the department is also proposing the X option to include those who are “intersex, agender, amalgagender, androgynous, bigender, demigender, female-to-male, genderfluid, genderqueer, male-to-female, neutrois, nonbinary, pangender, third sex, transgender, transsexual, Two Spirit, and unspecified.” In Spokane, people who identify as nonbinary relished the news.
Toll-like receptor 7 expression in cortical neurons was higher in mice with XY compared with mice with XX CNS, consistent with the known neurodegenerative role for toll-like receptor 7 in neurons.
Most autoimmune diseases affect females more than males in both humans and mice.In the MS model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), XX as compared with XY, conferred greater encephalitogenic responses.